Here is a simple and relaxing foot soak recipe. I make this often as gifts and have yet to hear a complaint!
20 small or 10 medium sized SMOOTH rocks, those iridescent glass rocks like they sell in various stores–try dollar stores, many times they have them inexpensively–to put in vases to hold plants and if all else fails, use marbles!
Heavy Duty, Sturdy Plastic Tub
1-2 of your favorite tea bags
2-4 cups (depending on size and depth of your tub) very warm water
Put rocks in tub, and add warm water and tea bags. Allow tea bags to steep and water to cool, until you are comfortable with the fragrance and water temperature. Immerse feet in the fragrant and relaxing soak. Rub feet gently on rocks, massaging the bottoms of them. This soak is great for tired feet. After soak: Remove tea bags and allow to dry. Open bags up and remove herbs. Use the herbs either in potpourri or as compost for your garden. Put rocks on a towel and allow to dry, for use the next time you need a relaxing escape!
THE PRIMITIVE WITCH’S HANDBOOK THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR THE PRIMITIVE/COUNTRY WITCH IN A MODERN WORLD…
Van Scoyoc, Andrea Dean
Incense of the Day
2 parts Frankincense
2 parts Copal
1 part Sandalwood
1 part Rosemary
1 pinch finely powdered Salt
1 sm. purified Quartz Crystal point
To use, pour a bit of the incense (leaving the crystal in the jar) onto charcoal. Smolder, and pass the crystals to be purified through the smoke, visualizing the smoke wafting away the stone’s impurities. This incense can be used in conjunction with other recommended purifying rituals, or in place of them. To cleanse the crystal, leave it in sunlight for a few days, place it in running water overnight, or bury it in the Earth for a week.
Gemstone of the Day
Specific Gravity: 3.9 – 4.1
Chemistry: Al2O3 – Aluminum Oxide
Fracture: uneven, conchoidal
Healing: It is said that wearing a necklace of sapphires will cure a sore throat. Sapphire is used to treat blood disorders such as excessive bleeding and to thicken vein walls. Sapphire is the most effective healing stone for the nervous system. It also aids in regulating the function of the thyroid gland.
Magical Workings: Sapphire is used to dispel bad feelings and to enlighten one’s mood, it is a crystal of harmony and peace.
It is often called the “Stone of Prosperity”. Sapphire is an excellent stone for meditation. Star Sapphire is used as protection from the evil eye.
The Blue Sapphire is traditionally associated with purity and love.
Yellow Sapphire attracts wealth and brings prosperity to the home.
The Black Sapphire provides centering, protection and grounding.
The White Sapphire is an extremely protective gem.
The Indigo Sapphire enhances psychic awareness. It eliminates negative energies from the aura.
The Green Sapphire improves internal and external vision and helps you to remember dreams.
India considered it to be the stone of Saturn, and believed it to be a portal to the heavenly realms.
Sapphire is thought to be one of the stones on the breastplate of the Hebrew High Priest.
Sapphire is associated with the astrological signs of Virgo, Libra and Sagittarius. It vibrates to the number of 2, though Sapphires of different colors will vibrate to different numbers.
Chakra Applications: The Blue Sapphire is traditionally associated with purity and love. It opens and heals the thyroid and the throat chakra and has a calming and balancing effect on the nervous system.
Yellow Sapphire is associated with the Solar Plexus chakra.
The Black Sapphire is associated with the Base Chakra.
The Pink Sapphire clears emotional blockages bringing peace and unconditional love. It is associated with the Heart chakra.
The White Sapphire is associated with the Crown chakra.
The Indigo Sapphire is associated with the Third Eye chakra.
The Green Sapphire is known as the “Stone of Fidelity”, and stimulates the Heart chakra.
Foot Notes: Sapphire is the birthstone for September. It is also a 45th Anniversary gemstone.
Sapphire is the non-red variety of corundum, and the second hardest natural mineral known to mankind. Many Sapphire deposits are the remains of metamorphic or igneous veins of granite and marble weathered away into stream beds and mountain valleys.
An ancient Persian myth tells of a giant blue sapphire that Mother Earth rests upon, and that the sky is the reflection of this massive blue crystal.
Website: The Whispering Woods
Herb of the Day
The name comes from the Latin ros, “dew”, and maris, “ocean”, meaning “dew of the sea”. In the sixth century Charlemagne decreed that rosemary should be grown in all the imperial gardens. Christian legend claims that flowers were originally white but were turned varying shade of blue when Mary hung her blue cloak over a rosemary bush.
Medicinal Uses: Rosemary is a stimulant of the circulatory system. It is used to treat bites and stings externally. Internally it is used to treat migraines, bad breath, and to stimulate the sexual organs. The tea makes a mouthwash for bad breath. It is also used to treat nervous disorders, upset stomachs, and is used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to ease cramps. The oil benefits stomach and nerves. Use rosemary in salves for eczema, wounds, and sores. Mix the crushed leaves generously into meats, fish, potato salads, etc. at your next picnic to prevent food poisoning. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy as an inhalant and decongestant, and to enhance memory and clear concentration. It is also used in lotions to ease arthritis and muscle pain. It is a strong antiseptic, and good in shampoos and hair rinses. An infusion of the leaves has also been used, alone or with borax, as a scalp wash to prevent baldness.
Steep the herb in white wine for a week and strain. Rub the rosemary wine into gouty or paralyzed limbs. Taken internally, the wine quiets the heart and stimulates the kidneys, brain, and nervous system. Rosemary tea relieves depression. The leaf and flowers are stimulating to the liver and the digestion. For this reason, rosemary is a classic herb for migraine headache when associated with liver or stomach torpidity.
Rosemary increases the circulation and slightly raises the blood pressure. To make the tea, steep two teaspoons of the dried flowering tops in one cup of water for twenty minutes. Take one-fourth cup four times a day. Rosemary and coltsfoot are smoked as herbal tobacco to relieve asthma and lung conditions. Rosemary essential oil is often blended with cedar wood, geranium, ginger, lemon balm, myrtle and sweet basil.
When used as a tea, the dose should not exceed one cup per day. Overdose can cause fatal poisoning. Even small doses of Rosemary oil can cause stomach, kidney and intestinal problems, and large amounts may be poisonous. If you’re pregnant, avoid using the herb altogether.
Magickal uses: Rosemary is an herb of consecration and purification from disease. As an herb of purification, rosemary can be a substitute for frankincense. Add it to incense and to the ritual chalice and distributed to guests. Burning it before performing magick will rid the area of negativity. It is carried in the hand during funerals and cast into the grave, as the coffin is lower into it. Rosemary or rosemary with juniper berries is burned as a protection from disease. Stuff healing poppets with rosemary for increased healing strength. Rub the hands with an infusion before beginning the healing process. Place it in books and drawers to repel moths. Place under the pillow or bed for restful sleep and protection from nightmares. Hang at the doors to repel thieves and disease. Wearing a chaplet improves the memory. The aroma of the wood preserves youth. Add it to the bath for this and its purifying qualities. Add to mixtures for love or lust. An answer may be divined by inhaling the smoke of rosemary. Wrap the powdered leaves in a piece of linen and wear on the right arm to be rid of depression and to generally improve the emotions. Rosemary in all of its forms is used for protection and banishment. Rosemary leaves under your pillow do away with evil spirits and bad dreams. It is hung on porches and doors to keep thieves out. Rosemary is grown to attract elves.
Properties: Stimulant, diaphoretic, carminative, nervine, aromatic, cephalic antispasmodic. Contains volatile oil: composed of borneol, camphene, camphor, cineole, limonene, linalool, isobutyl acetate, 3-octanone, terpineol, verbenol, flavonoids: apigenin, diosmetin, diosmin, genkwanin, 6-methoxygenkwanin, hispidulin, sinensetin, luteolin and derivatives. Rosmarinic acid and other phenolic acids, diterpenes such as picrosalvin (carnosol), carnosolic acid and rosmariquinone
Growth: Rosemary is a perennial that prefers mild climates, so it needs to be grown indoors where the winters are harsh, or very heavily mulched. It reaches 2-4 feet in height, and is tolerable of poor soils. Rosemary has narrow, needle-like leaves and lovely blue flowers. Cut back after flowering to keep it from becoming leggy. It is an evergreen shrub with numerous branches; ash-colored. scaly bark and bears opposite, leathery, thick leaves which are lustrous and dark green above and downy white underneath. They have a prominent vein in the middle and margins which are rolled down. The pale blue, sometimes white, relatively small, flowers grow in short axillary racemes, arranged in false whorls on the upper parts of the branches, blooming during April and May, or later in cooler climates.
Infusion: steep 1 tsp. dried flowering tops or leaves in 1/2 cup water. Take up to 1 cup per day.
Tea: prepare ordinary tea, put a pinch of ground ginger in the drink for variety. Drink 3 or 4 cups per day.
Tincture: a dose is from 5 to 20 drops.
Website: The Whispering Woods
Boudica (/ˈbuːdɨkə/; alternative spelling: Boudicca, also known as Boadicea /boʊdɨˈsiːə/ and in Welsh as Buddug [ˈbɨ̞ðɨ̞ɡ]) (d. AD 60 or 61) was a queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudica’s husband Prasutagus ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored and the kingdom was annexed. Boudica was flogged, her daughters raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes and others in revolt. They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes but at that time a colonia, a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, and site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels’ next target.
The Romans, having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed Londinium, and Verulamium (modern-day St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street.
The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’s eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died. The extant sources, Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ.
Interest in these events revived in the English Renaissance and led to Boudica’s fame in the Victorian era. Boudica has remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. However, the absence of native British literature during the early part of the first millennium means that knowledge of Boudica’s rebellion comes solely from the writings of the Romans
Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. Raphael Holinshed calls her Voadicia, while Edmund Spenser calls her Bunduca, a version of the name that was used in the popular Jacobean play Bonduca, in 1612. William Cowper’s poem, Boadicea, an ode (1782) popularised an alternate version of the name. From the 19th century and much of the late 20th century, Boadicea was the most common version of the name, which is probably derived from a mistranscription when a manuscript of Tacitus was copied in the Middle Ages.
Her name was clearly spelled Boudicca in the best manuscripts of Tacitus, but also Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, and Βοδουικα in the (later and probably secondary) epitome of Cassius Dio. The name is attested in inscriptions as “Boudica” in Lusitania, Boudiga in Bordeaux, and Bodicca in Algeria.
Kenneth Jackson concludes, based on later development of Welsh and Irish, that the name derives from the Proto-Celtic feminine adjective *boudīka, “victorious”, that in turn is derived from the Celtic word *bouda, “victory” (cf. Irish bua (Classical Irish buadh), Buaidheach, Welsh buddugoliaeth), and that the correct spelling of the name in the British language is Boudica, pronounced [bɒʊˈdiːkaː].
The closest English equivalent to the vowel in the first syllable is the ow in “bow-and-arrow”. The modern English pronunciation is /ˈbuːdɪkə/, and it has been suggested that the most comparable English name, in meaning only, would be “Victoria”.
Location of Iceni territory within England, Wales and Mann; modern county borders for England and pre-1996 borders for Wales are shown for context.
Tacitus and Dio agree that Boudica was of royal descent. Dio describes her as “possessed of greater intelligence than often belongs to women.” He also describes her as tall, with tawny hair hanging down to below her waist, a harsh voice and a piercing glare. He notes that she habitually wore a large golden necklace (perhaps a torc), a colourful tunic, and a thick cloak fastened by a brooch.
Her husband Prasutagus was the king of the Iceni, the people who inhabited roughly what is now Norfolk. They initially were not part of the territory under direct Roman control, having voluntarily allied themselves to Rome following Claudius’ conquest of AD 43. They were proud of their independence, and had revolted in AD 47 when the then-governor Publius Ostorius Scapula threatened to disarm them. Prasutagus had lived a long life of conspicuous wealth and, hoping to preserve his line, made the Roman emperor co-heir to his kingdom, along with his wife and two daughters.
It was normal Roman practice to allow allied kingdoms their independence only for the lifetime of their client king, who would then agree to leave his kingdom to Rome in his will. For example, the provinces of Bithynia and Galatia were incorporated into the Empire in just this way. Roman law also allowed inheritance only through the male line, so when Prasutagus died, his attempts to preserve his line were ignored and his kingdom was annexed as if it had been conquered. His lands and property were confiscated and nobles treated like slaves. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters were raped. Cassius Dio says that Roman financiers, including Seneca the Younger, chose this time to call in their loans. Tacitus does not mention this, but does single out the Roman procurator Catus Decianus for criticism for his “avarice”. Prasutagus, it seems, had lived well on borrowed Roman money, and on his death his subjects had become liable for the debt.
In AD 60 or 61, while the current governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign against the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) in the north of Wales, which was a refuge for British rebels and a stronghold of the druids, the Iceni conspired with their neighbours the Trinovantes, amongst others, to revolt. Boudica was chosen as their leader. According to Tacitus, they drew inspiration from the example of Arminius, the prince of the Cherusci who had driven the Romans out of Germany in AD 9, and their own ancestors who had driven Julius Caesar from Britain. Dio says that at the outset Boudica employed a form of divination, releasing a hare from the folds of her dress and interpreting the direction in which it ran, and invoked Andraste, a British goddess of victory.
The rebels’ first target was Camulodunum (Colchester), the former Trinovantian capital and, at that time, a Roman colonia. The Roman veterans who had been settled there mistreated the locals and a temple to the former emperor Claudius had been erected there at local expense, making the city a focus for resentment. The Roman inhabitants sought reinforcements from the procurator, Catus Decianus, but he sent only two hundred auxiliary troops. Boudica’s army fell on the poorly defended city and destroyed it, besieging the last defenders in the temple for two days before it fell. Archaeologists have shown that the city was methodically demolished. The future governor Quintus Petillius Cerialis, then commanding the Legio IX Hispana, attempted to relieve the city, but suffered an overwhelming defeat. His infantry was wiped out—only the commander and some of his cavalry escaped. The location of this famous destruction of the Legio IX is now claimed by some to be the village of Great Wratting, in Suffolk, which lies in the Stour Valley on the Icknield Way West of Colchester, and by a village in Essex. After this defeat, Catus Decianus fled to Gaul.
When news of the rebellion reached him, Suetonius hurried along Watling Street through hostile territory to Londinium. Londinium was a relatively new settlement, founded after the conquest of AD 43, but it had grown to be a thriving commercial centre with a population of travellers, traders, and, probably, Roman officials. Suetonius considered giving battle there, but considering his lack of numbers and chastened by Petillius’s defeat, decided to sacrifice the city to save the province.
…Alarmed by this disaster and by the fury of the province which he had goaded into war by his rapacity, the procurator Catus crossed over into Gaul. Suetonius, however, with wonderful resolution, marched amidst a hostile population to Londinium, which, though undistinguished by the name of a colony, was much frequented by a number of merchants and trading vessels. Uncertain whether he should choose it as a seat of war, as he looked round on his scanty force of soldiers, and remembered with what a serious warning the rashness of Petilius had been punished, he resolved to save the province at the cost of a single town. Nor did the tears and weeping of the people, as they implored his aid, deter him from giving the signal of departure and receiving into his army all who would go with him. Those who were chained to the spot by the weakness of their sex, or the infirmity of age, or the attractions of the place, were cut off by the enemy. – Tacitus
Londinium was abandoned to the rebels who burnt it down, slaughtering anyone who had not evacuated with Suetonius. Archaeology shows a thick red layer of burnt debris covering coins and pottery dating before AD 60 within the bounds of Roman Londinium., whilst Roman-era skulls found in the Walbrook in 2013 were potentially linked to victims of the rebels. Verulamium (St Albans) was next to be destroyed.
In the three settlements destroyed, between seventy and eighty thousand people are said to have been killed. Tacitus says that the Britons had no interest in taking or selling prisoners, only in slaughter by gibbet, fire, or cross. Dio’s account gives more detail; that the noblest women were impaled on spikes and had their breasts cut off and sewn to their mouths, “to the accompaniment of sacrifices, banquets, and wanton behaviour” in sacred places, particularly the groves of Andraste.
While Boudica’s army continued their assault in Verulamium (St. Albans), Suetonius regrouped his forces. According to Tacitus, he amassed a force including his own Legio XIV Gemina, some vexillationes (detachments) of the XX Valeria Victrix, and any available auxiliaries. The prefect of Legio II Augusta, Poenius Postumus, stationed near Exeter, ignored the call, and a fourth legion, IX Hispana, had been routed trying to relieve Camulodunum, but nonetheless the governor was able to call on almost ten thousand men.
Suetonius took a stand at an unidentified location, probably in the West Midlands somewhere along the Roman road now known as Watling Street, in a defile with a wood behind him — but his men were heavily outnumbered. Dio says that, even if they were lined up one deep, they would not have extended the length of Boudica’s line. By now the rebel forces were said to have numbered 230,000, however, this number should be treated with scepticism — Dio’s account is known only from a late epitome, and ancient sources commonly exaggerate enemy numbers.
Boudica exhorted her troops from her chariot, her daughters beside her. Tacitus gives her a short speech in which she presents herself not as an aristocrat avenging her lost wealth, but as an ordinary person, avenging her lost freedom, her battered body, and the abused chastity of her daughters. She said their cause was just, and the deities were on their side; the one legion that had dared to face them had been destroyed. She, a woman, was resolved to win or die; if the men wanted to live in slavery, that was their choice.
However, the lack of manoeuvrability of the British forces, combined with lack of open-field tactics to command these numbers, put them at a disadvantage to the Romans, who were skilled at open combat due to their superior equipment and discipline. Also, the narrowness of the field meant that Boudica could put forth only as many troops as the Romans could at a given time.
First, the Romans stood their ground and used volleys of pila (heavy javelins) to kill thousands of Britons who were rushing toward the Roman lines. The Roman soldiers, who had now used up their pila, were then able to engage Boudica’s second wave in the open. As the Romans advanced in a wedge formation, the Britons attempted to flee, but were impeded by the presence of their own families, whom they had stationed in a ring of wagons at the edge of the battlefield, and were slaughtered. This is not the first instance of this tactic—the women of the Cimbri, in the Battle of Vercellae against Gaius Marius, were stationed in a line of wagons and acted as a last line of defence Ariovistus of the Suebi is reported to have done the same thing in his battle against Julius Caesar. Tacitus reports that “according to one report almost eighty thousand Britons fell” compared with only four hundred Romans.
According to Tacitus in his Annals, Boudica poisoned herself, though in the Agricola which was written almost twenty years prior he mentions nothing of suicide and attributes the end of the revolt to socordia (“indolence”); Dio says she fell sick and died and then was given a lavish burial; though this may be a convenient way to remove her from the story. Considering Dio must have read Tacitus, it is worth noting he mentions nothing about suicide (which was also how Postumus and Nero ended their lives).
Postumus, on hearing of the Roman victory, fell on his sword. Catus Decianus, who had fled to Gaul, was replaced by Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus. Suetonius conducted punitive operations, but criticism by Classicianus led to an investigation headed by Nero’s freedman Polyclitus. Fearing Suetonius’ actions would provoke further rebellion, Nero replaced the governor with the more conciliatory Publius Petronius Turpilianus. The historian Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus tells us the crisis had almost persuaded Nero to abandon Britain.
Location of her defeat
The location of Boudica’s defeat is unknown. Most historians favour a site in the West Midlands, somewhere along the Roman road now known as Watling Street. Kevin K. Carroll suggests a site close to High Cross in Leicestershire, on the junction of Watling Street and the Fosse Way, which would have allowed the Legio II Augusta, based at Exeter, to rendezvous with the rest of Suetonius’s forces, had they not failed to do so. Manduessedum (Mancetter), near the modern town of Atherstone in Warwickshire, has also been suggested, as has “The Rampart” near Messing in Essex, according to legend. More recently, a discovery of Roman artefacts in Kings Norton close to Metchley Camp has suggested another possibility, and a thorough examination of a stretch of Watling Street between St. Albans, Boudica’s last known location, and the Fosse Way junction has suggested the Cuttle Mill area of Paulerspury in Northamptonshire, which has topography very closely matching that described by Tacitus of the scene of the battle.
In 2009 it was suggested that the Iceni were returning to East Anglia along the Icknield Way when they encountered the Roman army in the vicinity of Arbury Bank, Hertfordshire. In March 2010, evidence was published suggesting the site may be located at Church Stowe, Northamptonshire.
Tacitus, the most important Roman historian of this period, took a particular interest in Britain as his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola served there three times (and was the subject of his first book). Agricola was a military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus, which almost certainly gave Tacitus an eyewitness source for Boudica’s revolt. Cassius Dio’s account is only known from an epitome, and his sources are uncertain. He is generally agreed to have based his account on that of Tacitus, but he simplifies the sequence of events and adds details, such as the calling in of loans, that Tacitus does not mention.
Gildas, in his 6th century De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, may have been alluding to Boudica when he wrote “A treacherous lioness butchered the governors who had been left to give fuller voice and strength to the endeavours of Roman rule”.
History and literature
By the Middle Ages Boudica was forgotten. She makes no appearance in Bede’s work, the Historia Brittonum, the Mabinogion or Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain. But the rediscovery of the works of Tacitus during the Renaissance allowed Polydore Vergil to reintroduce her into British history as “Voadicea” in 1534. Raphael Holinshed also included her story in his Chronicles (1577), based on Tacitus and Dio, and inspired Shakespeare’s younger contemporaries Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher to write a play, Bonduca, in 1610. William Cowper wrote a popular poem, “Boadicea, an ode”, in 1782.
It was in the Victorian era that Boudica’s fame took on legendary proportions as Queen Victoria came to be seen as Boudica’s “namesake”, their names being identical in meaning. Victoria’s Poet Laureate, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote a poem, “Boadicea”, and several ships were named after her.
A statue of Boudica with her daughters in her war chariot (a historically furnished with scythes after the Persian fashion) was executed by Thomas Thornycroft over the 1850s and 1860s with the encouragement of Prince Albert, who lent his horses for the model.Thornycroft exhibited the head separately in 1864. It was cast in bronze in 1902, 17 years after Thornycroft’s death, by his son Sir John, who presented it to the London County Council. They erected it on a plinth on the Victoria Embankment next to Westminster Bridge and the Houses of Parliament, inscribed with the following lines from Cowper’s poem:
Regions Caesar never knew
Thy posterity shall sway.
Ironically, the great anti-imperialist rebel was now identified with the head of the British Empire, and her statue stood guard over the city she razed to the ground.
Boudica and King’s Cross
The area of King’s Cross, London was previously a village known as Battle Bridge which was an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. The original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge.
The name “Battle Bridge” led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica. The tradition is not supported by any historical evidence and is rejected by modern historians. However, Lewis Spence’s 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons went so far as to include a map showing the positions of the opposing armies. There is a belief that she was buried between platforms 9 and 10 in King’s Cross station in London, England. There is no evidence for this and it is probably a post-World War II invention.
The Wisdom of Buddha
You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.
Your Daily Influences
July 23, 2015
The Page of Swords
Youth if not in age then in spirit. Adept at diplomacy.
Ingwaz signifies completion, success and fertility. Your present ambitions are about to be met. You are fecund in both mind and body.
The Axe Head
As an axe cutting toward the tree your actions have set into motion a course of events in this aspect of your life that you cannot escape. You will know soon if your aim was precise or reckless.
Your Daily Influences represent events and challenges the current day will present for you. They may represent opportunities you should be ready to seize. Or they may forewarn you of problems you may be able to avoid or lessen. Generally it is best to use them as tips to help you manage your day and nothing more.